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A Guide to Turkey - The Country

Living in the Sun - International Property Sales

Information kindly provided by Living in the Sun - http://www.livinginthesun.com


The Country
The blue waters await around the fabulous coastline. Properties in Turkey are rarely far from the sea.

All the water sports are available, and even just a gentle swim snorkelling is a rich and rewarding experience.

Have no doubt, this really is a fabulous place, and those who try it once come back again and again. The people are friendly and welcoming, and the supporting services are very good. 


Geography
 
Climate Airports/Transport Language
Flora and Fauna
 
Population History Currency

Geography

Turkey is a vast peninsula, covering an area of 780,000 sq.+km and linking Asia to Europe through the Sea of Marmara and the Straits of Istanbul and Çanakkale. 

Turkey is like a mosaic made up of many different relieves and formations: parallel mountain ranges, extinct volcanoes, plateaus fissured by valleys and plains. Surrounded on its three sides by warm seas, it falls in the temperate climate zone. The climate varies considerably however from region to region: a temperate climate in the Black sea region, a Mediterranean climate on the southern coast and the Aegean, a continental and arid climate on the central plateau and a harsh mountain climate in eastern Turkey. Because of these variations in climate, the fauna and flora are some of the richest in Europe and the Middle East.

It also provides some extraordinary natural wonders, as well as a coastline as beautiful and inviting as any.

Climate

Turkey - The Climate
Turkey has a very diverse climate due to its equally diverse landscape. The Aegean plus the Mediterranean coast enjoy average temperatures of 29 C (84F) in summer and 9 C (48F) during the winter months, below is a table showing average sunshine, rainfall, and temperature in the main areas in which we sell properties.

 

THE AEGEAN

Month

January

April

July

October

Average Monthly Maximum Temperature

10

19 C

31 C

23 C

Average Monthly Minimum Temperature

5 C

10 C

20 C

13 C

Average Daily 
hours of 
sunlight

4

8

10

5

Average 
Monthly
 rainfall (mm)

26

26

26

26

 

MEDITERRANEAN TURKEY

Month

January

April

July

October

Average Monthly Maximum Temperature

14 C

21 C

33 C

26 C

Average Monthly Minimum Temperature

5 C

10 C

21 C

13 C

Average Daily 
hours of 
sunlight

7

10

13

8

Average 
Monthly 
rainfall (mm)

102

51

26

51

 

Airports/Transport

There are 14 international airports. Charter flights are available all the year around. There is an airport just 20 minutes drive from Bodrun. Access is easy to all the popular areas

Contact Buzz Travel at www.buzzytravel.com based in the UK

      flightlineflights.com


      globalholidays.co.uk

 

Language

The Turks were one of many linguistic and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire. Members of the military, civil and religious elite conducted their business in Ottoman Turkish dialect, a mixture of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. Arabic was the primary language of religion and religious law, while Persian was the language of art, literature. and diplomacy. Ottoman Turkish borrowed vocabulary words as well as entire expressions and syntactic structures from Arabic and Persian.

Pure Turkish was used primarily by the lower class and illiterate. It was generally not used in writing. Ottoman Turkish, on the other hand, was the language of the educated elite, in both written and oral communications.

When Mustafa Kemal Ataturk came to power in 1923, he instituted sweeping reforms in Turkey. One of these reforms dealt with language. The goal was to introduce a language more Turkish, modern, practical, precise, and easier to learn than the old language. The two basic elements of this language reform were the adoption of a new alphabet and the purification of the language.

Beginning in May, 1928, numbers written in Arabic were replaced with their Westem equivalents. In November of that year, the Grand National Assembly approved the new Roman (or Latin) alphabet, which had been devised by a committee of scholars including several American linguists.

Although some assembly members favored introducing the new system gradually over a period of years, Ataturk was determined that the transition last only a few months. As one who set an example by doing, Ataturk traveled throughout Turkey with chalk and a portable blackboard, personally teaching the new alphabet in schools, village squares, and other public places. On January 1, 1929, it became unlawful to use the Arabic alphabet.

The new alphabet represents the Turkish vowels and consonants more clearly that does the old alphabet.

Composed of Latin letters and a few additional variants including s (as in church), 6 (as in shell), and U (as in few), it contains one symbol for each sound of standard Turkish. The adoption of the Latin alphabet was a conscious tum away from the Islamic world and toward the West.

The long-term effects of the language reform have been considered positive overall. Reading, spelling, and printing are now mush simpler than before, and literacy has greatly increased. Modem Turkish is more direct and concise than Ottoman Turkish which makes it better suited to modem life, including science and technology.

Guide to Pronunciation

Pronunciation of Turkish words is phonetic with all letters having the same value in every situation. The Turkish alphabet contains all the letters of the English alphabet except for q, x, and w. In general, most letters are pronounced about the same as in English with a few exceptions.

The stress on Turkish words is more pronounced than in English. It usually falls on the last syllable, although many people argue it is the first syllable. Names of places are the exceptions where stress can be on any syllable, such as Istanbul, Marmaris, and Izmir.

TURKISH ALPHABET

Learning Practical Turkish www2.egenet.com.tr/mastersj/index.html

There is a Turkish language web site: OnlineTurkish.com - Turkish Language Education for Beginner and Intermediate Levels. The siteincludes listening exercises recorded by native speakers, a free online Turkish Phrase Book of 100 pages with sounds, pronunciation guide, grammar, vocabulary, online dictionary  and information about Turkey.

A Turkish Phrase Book has been prepared for travelers which has  more than four thousand basic phrases and expressions in shopping, travel, banking etc, and with a click on a button learners will hear native speakers and learn thousands of phrases used in daily life in Turkish. It is free. Just click on www.onlineturkish.com

 

Flora and Fauna

There are more than 10,000 species of plants in Turkey, 20% of which are found only in these lands. The abundant rainfall in the black sea region allows the growth of rich forest vegetation, including oak, beech, maple, alder, chestnut and walnut trees. The Dardanelles forms a transition between the Black Sea and the Aegean regions and therefore has a mixture of temperate and Mediterranean type of vegetation. Thrace has fine forests which are subject to the continental influence of the Balkans. The coast of the Aegean and the Mediterranean, from the Dardanelles to the gulf of Iskenderun, have a typically Mediterranean vegetation which extends to the plains and western slopes of mountains as high as 1,000 meters. The southern coast has very hot and dry summers and the vegetation in some places in subtropical with banana trees and date palms. In the Taurus mountains, the vegetation consists of pine and cedar forests, with even junipers at higher altitudes.

Central and eastern Anatolia are isolated from all maritime influence by mountains. Rainfall is low, the summers hot and dry and the winters harsh. In certain areas, the vegetation is steppe-like but also with forests of pine, oak and beech. The region around the Salt lake is almost entirely barren. The climate in eastern Turkey is even harsher, although the rainfall in the South-East allows birches, walnuts and oaks to thrive.

Turkey has a great variety of wild animals, with over 114 species of mammals. The forests belt in the north is home to gray bears and in the south to wild goats. Sea turtles and seals play in the waters of the Mediterranean and the Aegean. Just as in other parts of the world, some species have become extinction such as the wild Asian donkeys, lions and tigers. Some 400 species of indigenous or migratory birds live in Turkey, some of which are extinct in Europe such as the black vulture.

The most important species for environmentalists is the bald ibis, a peculiar bird with a bald pink head and drooping feathers. A number of these birds are now under protection in a colony of the shore of the Firat river in eastern Turkey. Turkey is an important stop over for birds migrating of between Africa, Asia and Europe, with the Istanbul Straits and Artvin being the preferred sites. Each spring and autumn, hundreds of thousands of birds, including storks and some predatory birds stop in these places before continuing on their journey. According to the International Office of Aquatic Birds and Areas, there are some 800 aquatic species in Turkey spanning in sixty different areas. The shores Lake Manyas near Balikesir are home to over 200 species of indigenous or migratory aquatic birds. This lake is considered to be one of Europe's richest aquatic bird centres. Over 250 indigenous or migratory birds live in the Sultan marshes near Kayseri; 20 of these are considered endangered species, although they come here to mate and breed. The Sultan marshes are thought to be the only places where flamingoes, cranes, herons and pelicans breed together. The protected salt marshes near Izmir are like a natural museum, with some 190 species of birds living in its marshes, lakes and hills. The hills also shelter rabbits, foxes and even boars. The Iztuzu sand beaches near Dalyan are the main breeding area for sea turtles.

 

Population

According to the results of the General Population Determination executed in November 1997, the population of Turkey is 62.8 millions. There is a tendency for decrease in the population growth rate in recent years. The annual population growth rate between years 1990-1997 had been determined to be 15.1 in one thousand. If the population growth rate is assumed to be stable, the calculated and expected population of Turkey in the midst of the year 2000 would reach 65,3 millions. 

The most important characteristic of the population in Turkey is the amount of young people. Turkey is among the fastest urbanizing countries of the world. The general sexuality ratio in Turkey is 103 men for each 100 women. 

History

7500 BC

First Stone age settlements at Catalhuyuk

1900-1300 BC

Hittite Empire with Hattusas as capital, contemporary with ancient Egypt and Babylon

1250 BC

The Trojan war and the fall of Troy

1200-700 BC

Migration of Greeks to Aegean coastal regions. Establishment of the Phrygian, Ionian, Lycian, Lydian, Carian and Pamphylian Kingdoms. The East of Turkey is the home of the Urartians

700 BC

Homer is born in Izmir (Smyrna). Aegean Hellenism begins

546 BC

Cyrus the Great leads the Persians into Anatolia

334 BC

Alexander the Great drives out the Persians

130 BC

The Romans incorporate Anatolia as the province of Asia, controlled from Ephesus (Efes)

40 BC

Antioch sees the marriage of Antony and Cleopatra

47-57 AD

St. Paul spreads Christianity and a community at Antioch is established

313

Roman Empire adopts Christianity

330

Constantine lays out the boundaries of his new capital, Constantinople

527-65

Glory of Byzantium under Justinian

638-718

Muslim Arabs besiege Constantinople

1054

Greek and Roman Churches split over theology

1071-1243

Rise and rule of the Selcuk Turks in Anatolia, Konya is their capital

1096-1204

The Crusades, marking the beginning of the end for Byzantium, a fascinating period in Byzantine history

1288

Ottoman Empire appears in Bursa

1453

The fall of Constantinople - the birth of Istanbul

1520-66

Suleyman the Magnificent sits on the Ottoman throne controlling a huge and powerful empire

1682-1725

Peter the Great initiates Russo-Turkish rivalry

1854

Crimean war

1909

Abdul Hamid, the last of an unbroken line of Ottoman sultans is deposed

1914

Turkey allies with Germany in the first world war

1915

Gallipoli

1919

Ataturk leads resistance to the allied plan to carve up Turkey

1923

Foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Many things happen all at once

1938

Ataturk dies in Istanbul's Dolmabahce palace

1939-45

Turkey manages to remain neutral during the second world war

1946

Charter membership of the UN

1952

Turkey joins NATO

1960

Military coup, successive governments ineffective

1964

Associate member status of EU

1974

Cyprus crisis

1980

Kanan Evren leads military coup. 3 years of military government

1983

Turgut Ozal elected prime Minister

1985-90

Full EU membership for Turkey impeded by Cypriot issue and questions over human rights record

1991-93

Suleyman Demirel elected Prime Minister, inflation at 70%

1993-96

Demirel President, Tansu Ciller Prime Minister, Turkey joins EU Customs Union

1997-98

5 attempts at forming coalition governments, Islamic Welfare party disbanded, reforms as Virtue and is the largest single party in parliament. Military intervenes to prevent Islamicists forming governments. 75th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic (and 15th of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) celebrated.

Currency

CURRENCY:

The currency of Turkey is called the Lira. Lira banknotes are issued in the following denominations: 100,000, 250,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000, and 10,000,,000 Lira. Being a millionaire in lira is easy !

CURRENCY IMPORT/EXPORT RESTRICTIONS:
Local currency may be imported for free, while export is limited to 5000 USD equivalent. Import of foreign currency is free; export of foreign currency is limited to 5000 USD equivalent, unless more declared at import.


CIRCULATION:
Smaller notes of 50,000 Lira and less are no longer in circulation but may be redeemed.

ALTERNATIVE CURRENCIES:
All major currencies accepted



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